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Register Access in C++
"Embedded programmers traditionally use C as their language of choice. And why not? It's lean and efficient, and lets you get as close to the metal as you want. Of course C++, used properly, provides the same level of efficiency as the best C code. Moreover, you can also leverage powerful C++ features to write cleaner, safer, more elegant low-level code. In this article, I present a C++ scheme for accessing hardware registers in an optimal way."
"What Every Programmer Should Know About Memory"
"As CPU cores become both faster and more numerous, the limiting factor for most programs is now, and will be for some time, memory access. Hardware designers have come up with ever more sophisticated memory handling and acceleration techniquesâ€“such as CPU cachesâ€“but these cannot work optimally without some help from the programmer. Unfortunately, neither the structure nor the cost of using the memory subsystem of a computer or the caches on CPUs is well understood by most programmers. This paper explains the structure of memory subsystems in use on modern commodity hardware, illustrating why CPU caches were developed, how they work, and what programs should do to achieve optimal performance by utilizing them."
"Implement an MP3 audio decoder with the ARM Neon Multimedia extensions""The ARM Cortex-A8 processor is the most advanced, high performance, low-power processor by ARM. Based on the ARMv7 architecture, the processor suits a variety of mobile and consumer applications, including mobile phones, STBs, game consoles and car navigation. As the core technology of Cortex-A8 processor,
NEON technology has the flexibility to implement multiple combinations of video encode/decode, 3D graphics, speech processing, audio decoding, image processing and baseband processing."
Collection of articles from Planet Analog in the form of a dialogue discussing power supply design including grounding, decoupling and bypass-capacitors.
"A bypass-capacitor dialogue peels back the layers" series
Part 1: "A bypass-capacitor dialogue peels back the layers" web page link
Basic information about bypass-capacitors, model, definition, practical discussion of selecting, ESL and ESR.
Part 2: "Part 2: The theory of ground relativity" - web page link
Discussion of the ground plane design, cuts, trace widths, coupling, via inductance, ground loops.
Part3: "Continuing the discussion on layout considerations" - web page link
"The elegance of ferrite beads" - web page link
Detailed discussion of the ferrite beads, model, frequency response.
"Choosing and Using Bypass Capacitors"
Part 1: "Choosing and Using Bypass Capacitors"- web page link
Part 2: "Common Types of Capacitors and Trade-offs"- web page link
Part 3: "Bypass Capacitor Application Examples" - web page link
"Deterministic dynamic memory allocation & fragmentation in C & C++"
Published January 2010In C and C++, it can be very convenient to allocate and de-allocate blocks of memory as and when needed. This is certainly standard practice in both languages and almost unavoidable in C++.
However, the handling of such dynamic memory can be problematic and inefficient. For desktop applications, where memory is freely available, these difficulties can be ignored. For embedded - generally real time - applications, ignoring the issue is not an option.
Dynamic memory allocation tends to be non-deterministic; the time taken to allocate memory may not be predictable and the memory pool may become fragmented, resulting in unexpected allocation failures. This article details the problems and an approach to deterministic dynamic memory allocation.
"Voltage Regulator-Down (VRD) 11.0 Processor Power Delivery Design Guidelines"
This document defines the power delivery feature set necessary to support Intel processorsâ€™ Vcc power delivery requirements for desktop computer systems using the LGA775 socket. This includes design recommendations for DC to DC regulators, which convert the input supply voltage to a processor consumable Vcc voltage along with specific feature set implementation such as thermal monitoring and dynamic voltage identification.