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The newlib-nano is an open source C library (libc) targeting embedded microcontrollers (MCU). Implementation focus is on code and data size reduction through optimization and removal of non-MCU features.
It was originally developed for ARM Cortex-M based Scum as a part of the GNU Tools for ARM Embedded Processors see this link for more details.
newlib-nano is a derivative of the well known newlib C library for embedded systems.
This project goal is to enhance newlib-nano with additional features and extend support to additional MCU families.
"Atmel has developed the new series of SAMA5D3 MPUs using a 65nm low-power process technology to deliver up to 850DMIPS at 536MHz while offering 1328MB/s at 166MHz bus speed. The floating point unit (FPU) also provides additional high-precision processing power for image, audio and sensor data. The SAMA5D3 series delivers market-leading low-power consumption under 200mW in active mode at maximum speed and below 0.5mW in low-power mode when retaining context and offering fast wake-up. All these features make the SAMA5 series ideal for high-performance industrial applications requiring high-precision computing and low power, including interfaces, control panels, networking, gateways, programmable logic controllers, barcode scanners or printers, terminals and battery-operated applications."
"Each programmable EV3 brick comes with an ARM9 robotic processor, an SD expansion slot and embedded 16MB flash memory, Linux, Bluetooth 2.1, iOS and Android compatibility, a USB 2.0 interface allowing Wi-Fi connectivity, four input and output ports, a Matrix display with a loudspeaker."
Introductory article by Chris Lattner.
" LLVM's Implementation of Three-Phase Design
In an LLVM-based compiler, a front end is responsible for parsing, validating and diagnosing errors in the input code, then translating the parsed code into LLVM IR (usually, but not always, by building an AST and then converting the AST to LLVM IR). This IR is optionally fed through a series of analysis and optimization passes which improve the code, then is sent into a code generator to produce native machine code, as shown in Figure 3. This is a very straightforward implementation of the three-phase design, but this simple description glosses over some of the power and flexibility that the LLVM architecture derives from LLVM IR."
In December 1932 Enigma machine was first broken by cryptologist (first hackers) Marian Rejewski, Jerzy Różycki and Henryk Zygalski from Polish Cipher Bureau. At first manual Grill method was used to crack messages, later with the invention of the Cyclometer new automated method was devised. In 1938 Bomba kryptologiczna (cryptologic bomb) was created to automate code breaking. Later this approach was copied by British and American cryptologists during World War II to decrypt German Enigma ciphers with their versions of cryptological "Bombes".
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"If you think about it, it’s weird. Everything about computer security has changed in the past 20 years, but computers themselves haven’t. It’s the world around them that has. An article to be published in the February 2013 issue of Communications of the ACM sums up the situation pretty succinctly:
“The role of operating system security has shifted from protecting multiple users from each other toward protecting a single…user from untrustworthy applications.…Embedded devices, mobile phones, and tablets are a point of confluence: The interests of many different parties…must be mediated with the help of operating systems that were designed for another place and time.”"